Characteristics of Common Fibers

Characteristics of Common Fibers Natural Fibers Wool Fibers Wool fiber is the natural hair grown on sheep and is composed of protein substance called as keratin. The wool fibers have crimps or curls, which create pockets and give the wool…

Characteristics of Common Fibers

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Characteristics of Common Fibers

Natural Fibers

Wool Fibers
Wool fiber is the natural hair grown on sheep and is composed of protein substance called as keratin.
The wool fibers have crimps or curls, which create pockets and give the wool a spongy feel and create insulation.
The outside surface of the fiber consists of a series of serrated scales, which overlap each other (much like the scales of a fish) which make it possible for the fibers to cling together and produce felt.

Cotton Fibers
Among the most important textile fiber in the world
Cotton is a natural vegetable fiber produced in the cotton plant.

Hemp and Flax Fibers
Hemp and Flax are cellulose fibers with properties that are similar and are scarcely differentiated at the fiber form.
Differentiation is complicated by treatment processes.

Jute Fibers
Jute fiber is one of the most affordable natural fibers and is harder than other textile fibers.
It is environment friendly and normally used for sacking, burlap, and twine as a backing material for tufted carpets

Silk Fibers
Chemically speaking, silk is made of proteins secreted by a caterpillar (silkworm) which feed on selected plants and spin cocoons as a protective shell to perpetuate their life.
Man interferes this life cycle at the cocoon stage to obtain the silk which is a continuous filament of commercial importance.

Synthetic Fibers

Rayon
Rayon will absorb moisture (more so than cotton), breathable, comfortable to wear, and easily dyed in vivid colors.
It does not build up static electricity, nor will it pill unless the fabric is made from short, low-twist yarns.
Rayon shares many properties similar to those of cotton.
Rayon Fiber is comfortable, soft to the skin, and has the moderate dry strength and abrasion resistance.

Acrylic
Acrylic can be thought of as artificial wool imitation.
It has wool’s warmth and softness but does not absorb water, but wicks moisture to the surface where it evaporates.

Polyester
Polyester is the most commonly used synthetic fiber.
Often blended with other fibers like cotton to get the best of both worlds.
Polyester fibers have good elasticity, wrinkle resistance, shape retention, excellent wash-and-wear performance and durability, and is widely used
However, because polyester fiber is poor in moisture absorption, its clothing makes the wearer feel hot and sticky, produces static electricity easily which results in clothing absorbing dust and clinging to the body, and has poor comfort.

Nylon
Nylon does not absorb water, but also means that movement combine to create static electricity.
Nylon has some of the look and feel of silk. It is used in sheer hosiery, sails, parachutes, blouses, gowns and veils, swimsuits, lingerie, and even car tires.
Nylon has also replaced wool as the fiber most used in carpets.

Spun Glass
Glass is one of the strongest textile fibers, having greater specific tensile strength than steel wire of the same diameter, at a lower weight.
Glass fabrics have excellent heat resistance with a softening point of 1555°F (846°C) and a melting point of 2075° F (1121 °C).
Glass fabrics are noncombustible, highly resistant to attack by most chemicals and unaffected by sunlight, fungus or bacteria.

Link to Lecture Slides: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1499npnTS29xwIkzhnRFMrIUmSidAeUcf/view?usp=sharing

*Due to the description character limit the full work cited for “Characteristics of Common Fibers” can be viewed at… https://drive.google.com/file/d/12q65VzxVo0VDzlc11gTMiw1VnAGg34SS/view?usp=sharing

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