Plastics: “Origin and Synthesis of Plastics Materials” 1945 US Office of Education

“Shows the organic origins of plastics and natural substances; synthesis of plastics from natural substances; differences between thermosetting and thermoplastic materials; compounding platics to provide desired properties in products forms in which plastics are produced and typical plastics products.” Originally…

Plastics: "Origin and Synthesis of Plastics Materials" 1945 US Office of Education

Source

0
(0)

“Shows the organic origins of plastics and natural substances; synthesis of plastics from natural substances; differences between thermosetting and thermoplastic materials; compounding platics to provide desired properties in products forms in which plastics are produced and typical plastics products.”

Originally a public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied.
The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plastic
Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/

A plastic material is any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic solids that are moldable. Plastics are typically organic polymers of high molecular mass, but they often contain other substances. They are usually synthetic, most commonly derived from petrochemicals, but many are partially natural…

Composition

Most plastics contain organic polymers. The vast majority of these polymers are based on chains of carbon atoms alone or with oxygen, sulfur, or nitrogen as well. The backbone is that part of the chain on the main “path” linking a large number of repeat units together. To customize the properties of a plastic, different molecular groups “hang” from the backbone (usually they are “hung” as part of the monomers before the monomers are linked together to form the polymer chain). The structure of these “side chains” influence the properties of the polymer…

Additives

Most plastics contain other organic or inorganic compounds blended in. The amount of additives ranges from zero percentage for polymers used to wrap foods to more than 50% for certain electronic applications. The average content of additives is 20% by weight of the polymer. Fillers improve performance and/or reduce production costs. Stabilizing additives include fire retardants to lower the flammability of the material. Many plastics contain fillers, relatively inert and inexpensive materials that make the product cheaper by weight… Since many organic polymers are too rigid for particular applications, they are blended with plasticizers (the largest group of additives), oily compounds that confer improved rheology. Colorants are common additives, although their weight contribution is small. Many of the controversies associated with plastics are associated with the additives. Organotin compounds are particularly toxic.

Classification

Plastics are usually classified by their chemical structure of the polymer’s backbone and side chains. Some important groups in these classifications are the acrylics, polyesters, silicones, polyurethanes, and halogenated plastics…

Thermoplastics and thermosetting polymers

There are two types of plastics: thermoplastics and thermosetting polymers. Thermoplastics are the plastics that do not undergo chemical change in their composition when heated and can be molded again and again. Examples include polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene and polyvinyl chloride…

Thermosets can melt and take shape once; after they have solidified, they stay solid. In the thermosetting process, a chemical reaction occurs that is irreversible…

The first so called plastic based on a synthetic polymer was made from phenol and formaldehyde, with the first viable and cheap synthesis methods invented in 1907, by Leo Hendrik Baekeland, a Belgian-born American living in New York state. Baekeland was looking for an insulating shellac to coat wires in electric motors and generators. He found that combining phenol (C6H5OH) and formaldehyde (HCOH) formed a sticky mass and later found that the material could be mixed with wood flour, asbestos, or slate dust to create strong and fire resistant “composite” materials… Bakelite was originally used for electrical and mechanical parts, coming into widespread use in consumer goods and jewelry in the 1920s. Bakelite was a purely synthetic material, not derived from living matter. It was also an early thermosetting plastic…

The plastics industry was revolutionized in the 1930s with the announcement of polyamide (PA), far better known by its trade name nylon…

In 1927, DuPont had begun a secret development project designated Fiber66, under the direction of Harvard chemist Wallace Carothers and chemistry department director Elmer Keiser Bolton…

His work led to the discovery of synthetic nylon fiber, which was very strong but also very flexible. The first application was for bristles for toothbrushes. However, Du Pont’s real target was silk, particularly silk stockings…

0 / 5. 0

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *